The Urantia Book -- Part IV. The Life And Teachings
PAPER 121: Section 7.
Jews And Gentiles
By the times of Jesus the Jews had arrived at a settled concept of their origin,
history, and destiny. They had built up a rigid wall of separation between themselves
and the gentile world; they looked upon all gentile ways with utter contempt.
They worshiped the letter of the law and indulged a form of self-righteousness
based upon the false pride of descent. They had formed preconceived notions regarding
the promised Messiah, and most of these expectations envisaged a Messiah who would
come as a part of their national and racial history. To the Hebrews of those days
Jewish theology was
irrevocably settled, forever fixed.
The teachings and practices of Jesus regarding tolerance and kindness ran counter
to the long-standing attitude of the Jews toward other peoples whom they considered
heathen. For generations the Jews had nourished an attitude toward the outside
world which made it impossible for them to accept the Master's teachings about
the spiritual brotherhood of man. They were unwilling to share Yahweh on equal
terms with the gentiles and were likewise unwilling to accept as the Son of God
one who taught such new and strange doctrines.
The scribes, the Pharisees, and the priesthood held the Jews in a terrible bondage
of ritualism and
legalism, a bondage far more real than that of the Roman political
rule. The Jews of Jesus' time were not only held in subjugation to the law
but were equally bound by the slavish demands of the traditions, which
involved and invaded every domain of personal and social life. These minute regulations
of conduct pursued and dominated every loyal Jew, and it is not strange that they
promptly rejected one of their number who presumed to ignore their sacred traditions,
and who dared to flout their
long-honored regulations of social conduct. They
could hardly regard with favor the teachings of one who did not hesitate to clash
with dogmas which they regarded as having been ordained by Father Abraham himself.
Moses had given them their law and they would not compromise.
By the time of the first century after Christ the spoken interpretation of the
law by the recognized teachers, the scribes, had become a higher authority than
the written law itself. And all this made it easier for certain religious leaders
of the Jews to array the people against the acceptance of a new gospel.
These circumstances rendered it impossible for the Jews to fulfill their divine
destiny as messengers of the new gospel of religious freedom and spiritual liberty.
They could not break the fetters of tradition. Jeremiah had told of the "law to
be written in men's hearts," Ezekiel had spoken of a "new spirit to live in man's
soul," and the Psalmist had prayed that God would "create a clean heart within
and renew a right spirit." But when the Jewish religion of good works and slavery
to law fell victim to the stagnation of
traditionalistic inertia, the motion of
religious evolution passed westward to the European peoples.
And so a different people were called upon to carry an advancing theology
to the world, a system of teaching embodying the philosophy of the Greeks,
the law of the Romans, the morality of the Hebrews, and the gospel of personality
sanctity and spiritual liberty formulated by Paul and based on the teachings
Paul's cult of Christianity exhibited its morality as a Jewish birthmark.
The Jews viewed history as the providence of God -- Yahweh at work. The Greeks
brought to the new teaching clearer concepts of the eternal life. Paul's doctrines
were influenced in theology and philosophy not only by Jesus' teachings but
also by Plato and Philo. In ethics he was inspired not only by Christ but
also by the Stoics.
The gospel of Jesus, as it was embodied in Paul's cult of Antioch Christianity,
became blended with the following teachings:
- The philosophic reasoning of the Greek proselytes to Judaism, including
some of their concepts of the eternal life.
- The appealing teachings of the prevailing mystery cults, especially the
Mithraic doctrines of redemption, atonement, and salvation by the sacrifice
made by some god.
- The sturdy morality of the established Jewish religion.
The Mediterranean Roman Empire, the Parthian kingdom, and the adjacent peoples
of Jesus' time all held crude and primitive ideas regarding the geography
of the world, astronomy, health, and disease; and naturally they were amazed
by the new and startling pronouncements of the carpenter of Nazareth. The
ideas of spirit possession, good and bad, applied not merely to human beings,
but every rock and tree was viewed by many as being spirit possessed. This
enchanted age, and everybody believed in miracles as commonplace occurrences.